Thesis On Organ Building in New South Wales

 

Note: The pictures from this article are currently missing, however are in the process of being found and added.

ORGAN BUILDING IN NEW SOUTH WALES

BETWEEN 1850 and 1900.

A project submitted as part of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in the Department of Music, University of Sydney.

WILLIAM PIERCE

SYDNEY, 1953

PAGE 1

This project on organ building in New South Wales between 1850 and 1900 is in two parts. The first part describes the mechanism and tonal production of organs of this period while the second part describes the work of British and Australian builders in the local field.

The mechanical and tonal developments leading up to the present-day modern British organ have been treated by many able and experienced enthusiasts of the instrument so that this section is in no way original. It is hoped however, that not only will it assist in an understanding of the descriptions in the second section but that it will also stress those aspects of the craft which gave the instruments of this period their own particular character.

The second part, recording the work of British and Australian builders in the local field attempts to show the extent of organ-building activity in New South Wales at this time. It endeavours to show who were the important firms, where examples of their work are to be found and to give a detailed description of at least one instrument representative of each firm’s work. In the case of Australian builders, notes on organs built since 1900 have been included in order to give some idea of trends since then, as well as to complete the work of certain builders and place as many instruments as possible on record.

While the instruments have been classified according to their builders, the possible history of individual instruments should not be overlooked. Some of the instruments proved to have quite an interesting history upon enquiry. However, time has prevented this being done in every case so that further evidence may possibly be brought forward.

Finally, this project does not attempt to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the instruments of this period from a present-day performer’s point of view, although one or two observations have been made; rather it aims to record as many instruments as possible.

Much of the information in the second section has been obtained from different local enthusiasts but particularly valuable has been a collection of photographs and specifications as well as a collection of press cuttings made by the late Robert Cherry, both collections having been made available through the kindness of Mrs. Cherry.

To all those who have helped the writer in his efforts, his grateful thanks is extended.

C O N T E N T S

Preface

  • Introduction
  • The Mechanism of the Instrument
  • The Practice of Tonal Production

British Organ Builders:

  • Bevington and Sons
  • Bryceson
  • Forster and Andrews
  • Hill and Sons
  • Hunter and Sons
  • Walker and Sons

Australian Organ Builders:

  • Note on an early organ builder
  • W. Davidson
  • C. J. Jackson
  • Notes on some later builders

LIST OF DIAGRAMS

  • Bellows
  • Key action
  • Stop action
  • Barker lever action
  • Tubular pneumatic exhaust system
  • Tubular pneumatic pressure system
  • Flue pipe and parts
  • Reed pipe and parts
  • Diagram of various types of stops

INTRODUCTION

[pg1] Grove defines the organ as “a wind instrument, the basic principle of which is that its tones are produced by means of a number of pipes, each pipe producing only one note.” The organ consists of a number of departments. Those connected to the manuals (keyboards) are known as choir, great, swell, (and more rarely) solo, and echo organs, (in keyboard order, from bottom to top), while the department connected to the pedals is known as the pedal organ. Organs are designated as one, two, three-manual instruments etc. according to their number of manuals.

Within each department are found stops (ranks of pipes) of various pitches and tones. These pitches, identified according to the approximate length of the lowest pipe (CC) run in octaves (32′, 16′, 8′-fundamental pitch, 4′, and 2′) as well as at other intervals (5 1/3-fifth diatonic note above, and 2 2/3′-twelfth diatonic note above.) Whereas 8′ is the basic manual pitch, 16′ is the basic pedal pitch. In order to reinforce the upper partials of the prime note, stops known as “mixtures” are used, imparting brilliance to the ensemble tone of the instrument. These stops contain more than one rank of pipes (two, three, sometimes five or more) which usually speak some upper diatonic note such as 12. 15. 17. 19, 21 and others. As this reinforcing is most desirable in the lowest part of the compass, these stops “break” back to lower intervals and fewer notes as they ascend.

Flue stops are [pg2] classified according to the acoustic principle on which they operate, the flue or the reed. Flue stops are classified tonally as diapason (fundamental organ tone), flute or string tone, while reed stops are either chorus or solo stops, the chorus reed being part of the fundamental tonal architecture while the solo reed is an imitation of some orchestral instrument.

In addition to contrast between stops there is also contrast between manuals. This includes contrast of volume and tone. Thus the great organ possesses diapason tone in ranks of 16′, 8′, 4′, and 2′ pitch for its basic tone. The swell organ is more subdued in volume yet its character besides the softer combinations is essentially that of brilliance and “fire” from flue “upperwork” and chorus reeds. This department is always enclosed in a box, which by means of a “louvre” front enables the player to achieve various degrees of expression without “registration” (or stop) changes.

The choir organ which is also sometimes enclosed, is a department consting of light accompanying stops and does not usually contain diapason work, its foundation more often being flute tone. From the foregoing description it will be readily seen that an elaborate mechanism is necessary to place such a variety of tone and pitch under the control of the performer.

[pg3] THE MECHANISM OF THE INSTRUMENT

The mechanism of the organ may be divided into four parts:

  • the bellows
  • the key action
  • the draw-stop action
  • and the couplers
   
 

The bellows which supply the wind for the pipes consist of a reservoir supplied with wind from the feeder. From the reservoir the wind is conveyed through a “wind trunk” of either metal or wood to the wind chest, a substantial box extending the whole length of the sound-board, about equal to it in depth and about two-thirds its width. Here we find the sound-board pallets. The key action is the mechanism enabling the player to open these pallets. The type of key (and also stop) action used in most of the instruments of this period is “tracker” action. This type of action consists of a key, sticker, roller and tracker connecting with a pull-down attached to the pallet.

   
 

 

On pressing down the key – working on a metal pin – the further end rises, lifting the vertical sticker. This in turn, lifting the front arm of the horizontal roller, causes the roller to revolve slightly and the back arm, at the opposite end of the roller to descend. This back arm is attached to the tracker made to any length necessary to reach from the back roller arm to the pull-down. Cloth discs and bushings ensure silence during operation.

To lighten the tracker action as much as possible, “relief” pallets are used to reduce the resistance at the pallet. There are two types: the “jointed” pallet in which two or three inches of the fore part move first and then the remainder, [pg4] perhaps for nearly a foot in length; and the “double” pallet in which a small valve is placed on the back of the large one, opening first.

   
 

The second system of mechanism is the draw-stop action which enables the player to operate a “slider” which lies beneath each rank of pipes. Thus, when in the “on” position, holes drilled in the slider allow the wind to pass through similary positioned holes in the wind chest and upper boards. The slider is connected to its respective draw-stop by a moveable “trundle” and trace rod. When the draw-stop is drawn forward, the trundle literally “turns the corner”, partly revolving and moving the trace rod. The lower end of the lever is drawn inwards causing the upper end to move outwards and take the slider end with it. This action is reversed when the draw-stop is pushed in.

The action of a manual coupler consists of a set of levers (“backfalls”) acting on each key. As the front of the backfall lifts, the far end descends and presses down a “sticker” resting on the back end of the T-shaped backfall of the manual-action which is then set in motion. The octave and suboctave couplers consist of splayed backfalls which extend from any given key to the tracker of its octave or suboctave. When the draw-stop is put in, the backfalls rise from the stickers at the front end. The pedal couplers work in a similar manner.

There are two other forms of coupler: the “ram” and the “tumbler”. The tumbler consists of a “stock” which turns on [pg5] a centre when the coupler is on. The tumbler lies in the vertical position between the two sets of keys while it is horizontal when “off”.

The swell box in the organs of this period are operated by either a trigger lever which is held in certain fixed positions by a notched rod (the “fixed” positions of the particular organs in this project being, with few exceptions, only two; “open” or “closed”) or by a balanced swell pedal which when operated by pressure on either toe or heel will remain fixed in any one position. Both pedals operate the louvres by means of rods which work on the leverage principle.

Mention must be made of supplementary actions designed to overcome the physical effort required to operate the tracker mechanism. The development of supplementary actions was the outstanding contribution of the builders of this period (French, Cavaille-Coll as well as British) to the mechanism of the organ. This development arose through the need for an easier type of action to operate the larger organs then coming into vogue. In this respect, the development also embodied stop and coupler mechanism.

   Barker Lever Pneumatic Action
 

In the Barker lever action, depression of the key admits heavy pressure wind to a small external motor (something like a feeder) causing it to distend or inflate, and operate an ordinary tracker action leading to the pallet. Upon releasing the key, a small valve is opened, emptying the motor, which then collapses [pg6] allowing the pallet spring to close the pallet.

   Pressure Pneumatic Action
 

Tubular-pneumatic action is of two kinds. In the supply, charge or pressure system, depression of the key admits wind to a tube conveying it to further pneumatic work, which in turn exhausts an inflated motor subject to wind pressure within and without, causing it to collapse and pull down the tracker attached to it.

   Exhaust Pneumatic Action
 

In the exhaust system, depression of the key exhausts the tube and motor from the key end of the tube, opening the pallet as before.

Further developments of the period were the early experiments and patents in electric action by Gauntlett, Barker and Bryceson showing still further the keen interest and desire for mechanical development.

THE PRACTICE OF TONAL PRODUCTION

The developments shown in organ mechanism between 1850 and 1900 were not without parallel in the field of tonal production. The organ of the period tended to “bigness” not only in the number of manuals and stops but, especially towards the turn of the century in the actual volume output per pipe of the fundamental flue and reed ranks. The treatment of large-scale diapasons with the necessary increase in wind pressure, the increased scales of wood stops in the pedal department, the use of 16′ and even 32′ stops on the manuals together with the treatment of chorus reeds such as seen in Hill’s best work, the popularity of the solo tuba In the large specifications and the use of higher pressures for reed choruses as introduced by Henry Willis are all manifestations of this “bigness”. The effect of the sentimental outlook of the period is also important, any specification really true to the period showing soft string stops of the gamba and celeste class as well as the quieter solo reed stops of the corno di basseto, orchestral oboe and vox humana classes.

What however, is the most significant feature of organ tone of this period is the high degree of craftsmanship embodied in voicing of individual and ensemble ranks. This craftsmanship gave the organ a dignity and grandeur which places the work of the master builders of this time in the annals of organ-building history.

Although what follows is a technical account of tonal production methods, this is not the secret of the art of these men. Their results came from skill of the highest order and what they accomplished cannot be gained from any paper account but only by practical listening experiment.

   
 

The greater number of pipes in the instrument of this period are flue pipes. A flue pipe consists of a foothole which takes wind under pressure from the wind-chest; the foot itself in which the wind builds up pressure; the languid which separates the foot from the body except for a narrow slit called the flue, through which the wind passes; the mouth which consists of upper and lower lips flanked by the “ears”; and the body or “speaking” length in which the sound waves are set in motion.

The factors determining the quality of tone to be produced are wind pressure; diameter in proportion to length; shape; width of mouth; height of mouth; depth and numbers of “nicks”; and material.

The wind pressure depends on firstly, the pressure from the bellows (which in the case of the instruments to be discussed would be 2 ½ to 3 ½ lb per square inch) and secondly, bore of the foothole where the wind loses pressure by friction the more the foothole becomes restricted. The process of adjusting the wind pressure in the pipe is known as “regulating”.

The diameter in proportion to the length of the pipe gives the “scaling”. This is taken at the lowest note, the inside measurement being the one taken. The scaling of organ pipes depends on the size and acoustical qualities of a building, while the proportions of each organ pipe in a set cannot be maintained throughout the compass, i.e. although a pipe an octave above another is half its length, the other proportions, diameter and volume of air in the tube is not proportional.

The mouth of a pipe is said to bear some proportion to the circumference of the pipe, e.g. a pipe may have a “1/3 rd” mouth. The “cut-up”,, the distance from the top of the bottom lip to the edge of the top lip is made proportional to the width of the mouth. As the out is made higher, so is there an increase in power. When the cut-up is low a string tone results; when medium, diapason tone is produced and when high, flute tone is produced. Thus it will be seen that the cut-up effects the harmonic development of the note, giving it its particular tone quality. Especially important in the harmonic development the note is the shape of the upper lip which may be modified within certain limits, a blunt, thick lip curtailing the harmonics while a sharp, thin edge encourages them. Between these two extremes there are many variants of “edge formation” (with or without the bevelling of the upper lip) which modifies the tone in the subtlest manner.

To explain this. it should be remembered that it is here the secondary vortex (or sound eddy) forms combining with the primary vortex formed at the flue to produce a periodic vibration of the wind-stream at the mouth of the pipe from back to front, It is thus that the vortex system with its own fundamental note and harmonies acts as the originator of the sound produced by the pipe as a whole. This system operates given three aerial conditions; the outside stagnant air, the inside stagnant air and the air stream flowing from the flue. Two sets of vortices are generated at the flue, one set hitting the upper lip, the other set missing it. Hence the necessity for the condition of the outside stagnant air. It is the function of the vortices in this conditioned environment that produces edge tone.

These vortices set in oscillation the air stream in the mouth about midway between the two lips which in turn sets in motion the air column in the ‘body of the pipe which in turn starts vibrating longitudinally. The air column now becomes the greater influence in the partnership, profoundly affecting the mouth tone. It is the relationship between the vortices or edge tone and the body of air in the tube or column tone that makes the flue pipe a “coupled” system and it is the fact that the pitch of the edge tone can be made to rise or fall to that of the column tone which makes the treatment of the upper lip so important.

The “ears” which are not required for the very small high-pitched pipes provide some measure of protection from the outside air and help to restore the balance of pressure to some extent. Their addition lowers the pitch of the note slightly.

The “nicks” are V-shaped impressions made in the bottom lip and languid to steady tone and to elimate a snarling tone generally undesirable. Diapasons and pipes with few overtones require to be sparsely yet deeply nicked; oppositely, gambas and small-scale work generally require to be nicked closely and with faint impressions in proportion to the extent it is desired to retain the keenness, in effect of tone, of the untreated edge, so that in many cases the nicking has the appearance of microscopic saw teeth forming a continuous serrated edge.

Wood pipes may be nicked on the block alone or on the cap, or both. Wood basses are generally nicked on the block alone while large-scale 16’ basses are left unnicked.

   
 

The reed pipe, like the flue pipe is a “coupled” system between the vibrations of the reed and those of the air column in the tube. Either of them can be made to control the other within certain limits; for instance, the pipe may be sharpened in pitch by shortening the vibrating length of the tongue or by shortening the effective length of the tube. There is a certain degree of material control of the reed and tube, but this cannot be pushed too far as the pitch will change suddenly.

The tongue of the reed which is made from brass is curved, this curve varying from parabolic to logarithmic in shape. This shape is important to the tone, enabling, the tongue to cover and uncover the shallot by a rolling and unrolling process.

There are three main types of shallot; the open shallot, the closed shallot and the filled-in shallot. The first gives a loud tone, rich in harmonies; the second, a popular type. gives a brilliant tone when used with small-scaled tubes and high wind pressures while the third is used for producing tromba, horn or other smooth reed tone.

The type of tone is also influenced by the nature of the metal used in making the various parts of the reed. The boot and block should be heavily made and the reed tubes should be made of an alloy rich in tin. A certain reinforcement is desirable where the tube fits into the block, and in order that there shall be a proper transformation of the energy of the wind which passes the reed, the tubes should have a critical bore at the top.

  Various types of stops.
 

By acoustic theory, a conical tube reinforces the harmonics in their natural series. Thus conical tubes are used for pipes of trumpet tone, the power varying to a certain extent with the width of the tube. Wooden tubes can be used and zinc is often used for the largest pipes. The swell oboe may be made with a “close” tone. The tube consists of a narrow cone surmounted by a conical bell which is partially covered at the top by soldering on a regulating cap or shade. Opening the cap gives a brighter tone while closing the cap makes the tone smoother but weaker.

The orchestral oboe has a thin cylindrical tube with a bell and the opening of the shallot is very narrow. If a “double bell” is fitted to an orchestral oboe type of reed, its tone becomes that of a cor anglais.

The clarinet type of stop has cylindrical tubes which reinforce the odd-numbered harmonics only. The tube is half-length and capped while an extremely thin tube gives musette tone.

The vox humana is a type of clarinet with a short tube usually of one-eight length.

Before leaving the question of tonal production mention should be made of two types of flue pipe not already discussed. These are the harmonic pipe and the stopped pipe. The former is a pipe double the required length and pierced not quite half-way down so as to sound the first harmonic. It usually has a very sweet tone.

The latter consists of a pipe with a stopper at the top and only half the necessary length. This is explained acoustically by the fact that the node is now at the end of the pipe instead of at the centre as in the case of open pipes.

Finally, mention should be made of the effect of a building upon the tone of an instrument. The acoustic properties of a building can very often be the best “voicer” an instrument can have. Curved ceilings which diffuse the sound can greatly enhance the tone of an organ by creating considerable reverberation period, though this can have its extremes too, thus be-coming a disadvantage instead of an asset.

BRITISH ORGAN BUILDERS

An Organ by Bevington and Sons of London.

This firm was founded in 1784 by Henry Bevington who had been an apprentice to Ohram and Nutt, who were the successors to Snetzler, and eminent organ builder who settled in England in 1740 after leaving his native country, Germany.

The Organ at All Saints’ Church of England, Hunter’s Hill.

This 2-manual, tracker-action organ of 26 speaking stops was purchased for £810. Adding shipping and erection costs, it would have cost nearly £1000. Mr. C. J. Jackson of Detersham put up and tuned the instrument in the short space of twelve days, on the north side of the chancel. The casework is of pitch pine, the Pedal bourdon flanks the arch of the northern transept while the chancel front consists of the Great double diapason. The pipes are decorated in sea-green and gold, steel grey and maroon.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Mixture 3 rks
Principal 4′
Harmonic Flute 4′
Voix celestes 8′
Vox angelica 8′
Bell Gamba 8′
Hohl flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Double diapason 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Trumpet 8′
Full Mixture 2 2/3′
Flauto traverso 4′
Principal 4′
Salicional 8′
Claribel 8′
Open diapason 8′
Double diapason 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Clarionet et bassoon 8′
Suabe flote 4′
Dulciana 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Bourdon 16′
Open diapason 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  
Choir to Pedal  
Swell to Great  
Pedal Organ super octave  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell(2), Great(3)  
Compass: manuals CC-G 56n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Great to pedal reversible poppet  
Lever swell pedal  

 

Swell Organ:The harmonic flute goes to tenor C only. The bell gamba has a flute bass. The diapason is a keen stop. The harmonic flute has a prominent third harmonic. The mixture ranks are 12 15 19 at CC; at gg# this breaks back to 8 15. The cornopean and oboe are harmonic (i.e. they are flue pipes) from ccc#.

Great Organ: THe 8′ flute is a stopped wood pipe to middle c then open pipes to the top. It is a true clarabella in sound and workmanship. The bass pipes have high curved mouth and the whole rank is amply winded.The stop is very beautiful in tone. The salicional is a most distinctive stop of its kind, being halfway between salicional and dulciana tone. The 4′ flute is of stopped metal, finely nicked and fitted with the usual “chimneys.” The “ears” come well out over the mouth, thus: The mixture ranks at CC are 12 15 and 22 and it breaks at middle C to give 15 19 22. The trumpet has hooded pipes. This is done to prevent dust and dirt affecting speech. The double diapason is metal throughout.

Choir Organ: The stopped flute is deeply nicked. The dulciana is metal throughout, nicked on both edges. The 4′ flute is nicked on both block and cap. The clarionet et bassoon is of very good tone considering its age, the bassoon pipes (lowest octave) having pierced flares.

Pedal Organ: Both these stops are of big scale.

This instrument is a most solid piece of workmanship. The pipework is of the finest materials. The pipe metal is a “mixture” of high quality and the pipes are very heavy to lift. There is a high degree of “finish” in each pipe and the voicing both in sound and appearance is most artistic. Everything is neatly done. The existence of a double open metal stop on the great organ to its bottom note says much for the standard of organ-building carried out by this firm. This stop would surely have been borrowed for the pedal department had the action been pneumatic instead of tracker.

In vouching for the builders’ work Dr. E. Hopkins of the Temple Church, London in a report dated March 14th, 1884 spoke of the good tone and excellent workmanship of the instrument.

He spoke of the Salicional, voix celestes, vox angelica and lieblich gedact as stops of distinctive character. He described the general effect of the great organ as full and bright without being at all cutting or piercing.


The present writer was informed there was another Bevington organ in Sydney but Mr. Ken Noad, a partner of the firm which maintains the majority of Sydney organs, does not know of it.


AN ORGAN BY BRYCESON OF LONDON

The Organ at St. Brigid’s Roman Catholic Church, Marrickville

This church situated in Marrickville Road seats just under 2000 people. It is a large, lofty building with a semi-circular roof. This may account for the considerable sound reverberation period which greatly enhances the organ tone. The instrument, which is situated on the northern side of the western gallery, is a 3-manual organ of 39 speaking stops built in 1865.

According to Father Stanislaus, priest-in-charge of the music at St. Brigid’s, the organ early in the present century belonged to a Mr. McQuade, a theatrical entrepeneur. It is believed that McQuade bought the organ second-hand in England and had it installed in a specially constructed room in his home at Darling Point. In 1915, the Sydney piano firm of Rendall added a pedal trombone 16′ and a set of chimes. About 1920, the organ was purchased for the present church at a cost of £1,500. It was re-erected here by C. Richardson but the pedal trombone and set of chimes were not connected.

With the exception of the pedal stops and the lowest octave of the swell double diapason, the organ is tracker action. The casework consists of pipes from the metal open 16′ and the great open diapason 8′. The mechanical condition of the organ is very poor. While the key action operates satisfactorily enough, the stop mechanism and composition pedals are clumsy to operate. The flue and even reed work has stood remarkably well and there is plenty of good pipe material in the instrument. It is proposed to install electric action in the near future

The specification reveals a variety of quieter stops at different pitches. There is no “extension” work in the instrument.

SWELL ORGAN
Vox humana 8′
Cornopean 8′
Oboe 8′
Mixture III ranks
Gedact flute 4′
Principal 4′
Viol d’orchestre 8′
Keraulophonee 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Stopped bass 8′
Open diapason 8′
Double diapason 16′
Bourdon 16′
Spare slide 4′
Tremulant  
   

 

GREAT ORGAN
Trumpet 8′
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 3′
principal 4′
Harmonic flute 4′
Salicional 8′
Soft keraulophone 8′
Great open diapason 8′
Bourdon and double open diapason 16′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Trombone (disconnected) 16′
Open diapason (wood) 16′
Open diapson (metal) 16′
Bourdon 16′
Violon 8′
Bass flute 8′
Gemshorn 4′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Cor anglais 8′
Clarionet 8′
Gemshorn 2′
Gamba 8′
Flute d’amour 4′
Voix celestes 8′
Gamba 8′
Echo dulciana 8′
Rohr flute 8′
Stop’t bass 8′
Tremulant  

 

COUPLERS
Swell to choir (disconnected)  
Swell to great  
Swell superoctave  
Choir suboctave to great  
Swell to pedal  
Great to pedal  
Choir to pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell(3),Choir (2), Great and pedal(3)  
Compass: manuals CC-A 58n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Lever swell pedals to swell and choir  
Concave and slightly convex pedal board  
Drawstops at right angles to manuals  
Wind pressure: 3 1/2″  

 

Swell Organ: The swell bourdon sounds the lowest octave only and thus provides the bass for the missing lowest octave of the double open diapason, a wood stop. Unless the player wished to obtain a 16’bass with the left hand while using and 8′ stop with the right and when playing on the same manual, there seems to be no reason why the two stops shouldn’t be regarded as one rank and have only one Drawstop as in the case of the great 16′ stop.

There are also no basses to the keraulophon, lieblich gedact or gedact flute. To overcome this, there is a stop’t bass 8′ available by separate Drawstop and only speaking the lowest octave. This is done for economy reasons, the metal and wood for the lowest and largest pipes thereby being saved.

The open diapason is wood in its lowest octave. The keraulophon is typical of its type possessing circular hole, slot and tuning slide. The principal is of metal throughout the manual compass. The gedact flute is a stopped metal pipe. Only one break could be detected in the mixture which gave 17 19 22 at CC and 12 15 from middle C upwards. The oboe and Cornopean were typical stops of their class. The viole d’orchestre and vox humana are in a separate box opening into and with the swell box. They are at present disconnected.

The spare fourteenth slide has been added to the front of the original soundboard. This slide was possibly to hold a rank of hautboy pipes, a spare bottom octave of such pipes lying underneath the organ at present.

Great Organ Scalings
diapason 5 ¼ “
principal 3 ¼ “
twelfth 2″
fifteenth 1 3/8 “
16′ wood 7 ¾” x 6 ¾”
metal (ten. C) 3 1/8″

All scalings at CC

Choir Organ: Although labeled cor anglais, these pipes belong to the orchestral oboe class. The 2′ gemshorn pipes are inverted conical in shape and at the unusual 2″ pitch are very pleasant. The 4′ gamba is metal through out. The flute d’amour is a stopped wood pipe. The 8′ gamba is the only stop possessing a bass octave, the stop’s bass here serving the same purpose as its namesake on the swell.

Pedal Organ Scalings
Open metal 16′ 8 5/8 “
open wood 11 1/2 x 3 3/4″
bourdon 8″ x 9 1/2″

The disconnected trombone pipes have no tongues. It has wooden resonators for the lowest octave and metal pipes, some mitred, for the rest of its compass. It is of very poor quality.

BRITISH ORGAN BUILDERS 2

Some Organs by Forster and Andrews of Hull, England.

This firm commenced business in 1843. The partnership was responsible for many fine instruments all over the world.

The organ at All Saints’ Church of England, Woollahra

This church contains a very fine 3-manual organ of 30 speaking stops built by this firm in 1882. It is situated in the second bay at the eastern end of the north aisle of the church, a large and lofty stone building with a satisfactory reverberation period for sound. The instrument is in an ideal position, speaking directly into the chancel and nave.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Mixture IV rks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Gedact Flute 4′
Voix celestes 8′
Gamba 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Double diapason 16′
Tremulant  

 

GREAT ORGAN
Posaune 8′
Full mixture V rks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 3′
Flute harmonique 4′
Principal 8′
Gedact 8′
Viola da gamba 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Corno di bassetto 8′
Flautino harmonique 2′
Flauto traverso 4′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Dulciana 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Trombone 16′
Principal 8′
Bourdon 16′
Open diapason 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell octave  
Swell suboctavel  
Swell to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  
Choir to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell(3), Great(4)  
Compass: manuals CC-a 58n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Great to pedal reversible poppet  
Lever swell pedal  
Action: Barker lever to Great, acting on Swell couplers to Great.  
Straight, concave pedalboard  

 

The Great Organ: The diapason chorus on this organ possesses both weight and brilliance of tone. The scale of the 8′ diapason is approx. 7″, the mouth being approx. 5″ x 1 ½”. The scale of the principal is 3 1/8″. The twelfth and fifteenth add the necessary coherence to the 8′ and 4′ ranks, their scales being 2 1/8″ and 1″ respectively. The posaune is voiced on similar but softer lines to a trumpet. Like all the reeds on this organ, it suffers from age.

The three flutes in this department take their place with the many beautiful examples by this firm to be heard around Sydney. The bourdon and gedact are almost identical in scaling and voicing. The flute harmonique is a pierced metal stop of pleasant quality. The string stop, viola di gamba is a bearded metal stop with unique string quality. This does not prevent it blending admirably with the flutes and diapasons.

Swell organ:The double diapason is a misnomer, being a bourdon right through its compass. It possesses no lowest octave. The open diapason is a charming stop, possessing the ideal neutral colour for such a stop in this department. The principal is bright and assertive. The fifteenth and mixture complete the diapason chorus. The 8′ flute is very rich in tone while the 4′ flute is much quieter the upper lip being curved.

Choir Organ: This consists of a family of 8′, 4′ and 2′ flutes


The Organ at Bourke St. Congregational Church, Sydney The 2-manual instrument of 20 speaking stops was installed in the church by this firm in 1887 at a cost of £600. It was presented to the church by three sisters, the Misses Baxter who had a girls’ school in Albion St., Surry Hills. The organ was opened on June 10th, 1888.

The organ is situated at the western (pulpit) end of the church, the pipe work being placed a good eight feet above the floor of the church. It is a most favourable position. The organ tone is helped by the considerable sound reverberation period as well as by the semi-circular domed recess in which the organ is placed.

The pedal department shows the usual deficiency of the period-the absence of 8′, 4′ and mixture work to make this department independent of the manuals. The absence of a chorus reed on the swell organ robs this department of one of it’s most characteristic tone qualities.

The console is divided from the organ by the pulpit and is placed on the floor of the building. Thus the tracker action has to run back a considerable length, at least eight to ten feet on the floor level then a further eight feet up to the pallets. In spite of this, the touch is remarkably light, being only noticeably heavy when coupled. The detached console gives the player a better chance to judge his effects.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Mixture II rks
Flautino 2′
Principal 4′
Gamba 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′
   

 

GREAT ORGAN
Corno di basseto 8′
Mixture III ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 ‘
Harmonic flute 4′
Dulciana 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Bourdon 16′
Open diapason 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to great  
Swell to pedal  
Great to pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell (2), Great (3)  
Compass: manuals CC-G 56n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Lever swell pedal  
Straight , concave pedal board  
Drawstops at right angles to manuals  

 

Great Mixture Breaks
CC: 19 22 26  
C: 15 19 22  
mid. C: 19 22 26  
gg: 15 19 22  

The great solo reed, corno di basseto still showed some of its original “woody” tone. This stop as treated by this firm has a ‘very distinct tone of great richness.


The Organ at St. Saviour’s Anglican Cathedral, Goulburn (according to the late R. Cherry’s collection.)

SWELL ORGAN
Clarinet 4′
Oboe 8′
Horn 8′
Dulciana cornet III rks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Salicional 8′
Celeste 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′
   

 

GREAT ORGAN
Tromba 8′
Mixture V ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 ‘
Harmonic flute 4′
   
Principal 4′
Stopped diapason 8′
Claribel 8′
Open diapason No.2 8′
Open diapason No.1 8′
Double open diapason 16′
1 blank knob  :

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Posaune 16′
Principal 8′
Bass flute 8′
Stopped diapason 8′ (?16′)
Open diapason 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to choir  
Swell to great  
Choir to Great  
Swell to Pedals  
Great to Pedals  
Choir to Pedals  

 

ACCESSORIES
Pistons: Swell(4), Great(5), Choir(3)  
Horshoe pedals: Great to pedal  
Swell tremulant  
Straight, concave pedalboard  

 


Other organs built by this firm:

St. John’s Church of England, Glebe, 1883 2 manuals, 15 stops, 3 couplers.

Great Hall, University of Sydney, 1887 3 manuals, 36 speaking stops, 7 couplers.

This instrument was added to and electric action added by Hill, Norman and Beard (Aust.) in 1933.

BRITISH ORGAN BUILDERS 3

Some Organs by William Hill and son of London.

This firm was started about 1755 by John Snetzler, who was succeeded in 1780 by his foreman, Ohrmann. Ohrmann had a partner, W. Nutt in 1780 who was afterwards joined by Thomas Elliot about 1803. Elliot carried on alone, taking in a partner, William Hill in 1825, who had married his daughter. Elliot died in 1832, leaving Hill alone until 1837, when he was joined by Frederick Davidson. After 1838, Davidson left to go into partnership with John Gray and the firm became W. Hill and Son.

A partner of the firm, Arthur George Hill, wrote a valuable book of “Organ-cases and Organs of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, etc.”, 1883, as well as designing many very fine cases for the firm’s instruments. He was responsible for the casework of the Sydney Town Hall organ. There is also a very fine organ-case at the Hunter-Baillie Memorial Church, Annandale which was possibly designed by him. The lack of organ-cases in New South Wales makes these two very fine examples all the more pleasing.

In an article on Hill organ-cases in “The Organ”, Oct. 1944, Ernest E. Adcock refers to Dr. A G. Hill’s knowledge of the proper treatment for organ pipes in casework. He illustrates this by the case designed for the Sydney Town Hall organ and says:
“It is a truly marvellous conception and it greatly enhanced by the perfect way in which the large and small pipes are mingled. The shapely mouths of the 32ft’s and the absolutely correct ranking of the mouths of the show pipes contribute no little to its beauty and excellence. I do not think a more faithful imitation of seventeenth-century Renaissance work can be found anywhere; it is set above the orchestra and must present a thrilling sight to the beholder. If Dr. Hill had designed none other but this example, it would have sufficient to place him among the mortals in this respect.”

The late Rev. Andrew Freeman, a noted authority on English and Continental organ-cases, said it was the most successful 32ft. front which had ever emanated from England.

The firm amalgamated with Norman and Beard in 1914 and is now in business under the name of Hill, Norman and Beard.

The Sydney history of the firm as far as the present writer can gather, is as follows:

The Town Hall organ was built at the London works and erected by a team of men sent out. These men were under the supervision of the firm’s representative in Sydney, a Mr. Edward Mylrea searched out business for the firm, specified, obtained the necessary details and forwarded this to London. When the completed instrument was landed, he would then supervise or carry out himself the erection.

Another of this firm was Holroyd. Mr. W. Pogson knew Holroyd from at least the 1910’s to the late 1920’s. But if a note by the late Mr. Cherry is correct, then Holroyd erected the Hill organ in the Roman Catholic cathedral at Goulburn during or after 1890.

The firm has representatives at the present time in Sydney and Melbourne.


The Organ at Newtown Methodist Church

This organ was erected by Messrs. Hill & Son of London, under the direction of the late Mr. F. Morley, at that time Organist at the Bourke Street Methodist Church.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Principal 4′
Hohl Flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Mixture(only perhaps) II rks
Fifteenth 2′
Wald Flute 4′
Principal 4′
Dulciana 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Bourdon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

 

In 1880, extra stops were added. In 1903, Mr. W. Pogson was appointed organist and was instrumental in having many improvements effected. In 1905, the organ gallery and loft were built and some alterations to the organ itself were made. Other improvements were made including the additions of stops and the converting of the pedal action to the pneumatic system. The original method of blowing the organ was by hand; this gave place to hydraulic power which in turn was replaced by electric power. This is called a “Discus” blower installed at present outside the church.

Mr. Pogson told the present writer of two additions. The first was the addition of gamba and celeste ranks by Richardson. The second was the converting of the swell and pedal organs to pneumatic action, the addition of the swell stops and a new radiating and concave pedal board by C.W. Leggo for Fincham & Sons of Melbourne.

Specification of the Organ as it Stands To-Day:

SWELL ORGAN
Clarion 4′
Vox humana 8′
Oboe 8′
Horn 8′
Mixture II rks
Piccolo harmonique 2′
Principal 4′
Voix celeste 8′
Gamba 8′
Hohl flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′
Tremulant  
   

 

GREAT ORGAN
Clarionet 8′
Trumpet 8’s
Mixture II rks
Fifteenth 2′
Wald flute 4′
Principal 4′
Dulciana 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Open diapason 16′
Open Wood 16′
Bourdon 16′
Octave 8′
Flute 8′
Fifteenth(not installed) 4′

 

COUPLERS
Swell super-octave  
Swell suboctave  
Swell to great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell (3), Great (3)  
Three thumb pistons to pedal  

 

SWELL ORGAN. The reeds are smooth in tone and have not suffered so much from age as other examples. The piccolo sounds very gently blown.

GREAT ORGAN. Scales: diapason (inaccessible ( between 7″ and 8″; principal 3″; fifteenth 1 3/4″. The trumpet is a very fine stop.< /p>

PEDAL ORGAN. Scales: metal 16′: 11″. Wood 16′: 9 3/4″ x 11 1/2″. Bourdon: 6 1/2″ x 7 1/4″.

The tone of the organ is very impressive both in individual ranks and in ensemble. the swell super and sub couplers add to the possible effects of this instrument, the pneumatic action permitting this, as, also, itt allows on the Pedal some very useful borrowings. The extension of the great Open Diapason to provide a 16′ metal base is both effective and economical. (Some of these facts were obtained from Mr. Pogson, others from a booklet “Centenary of Newtown Methodism”, 1840-1940.)


The Organ at St. Patrick’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Goulburn according to the late R. Cherry’s collection.

This organ was built in 1890 and erected by Holroyd.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Dulcet 4′
Voix Celeste 8′
Salicional 8′
Stopped Diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Mixture III ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 3 ‘
Wald flute 4′
   
Principal 4′
Gamba 8′
Hohl Flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Clarionet 8′
Suabe Flute 4′
Gemshorn 4′
Principal 4′
Dulciana 8′
Lieblich Gedact 8′

 

 

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Principal 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to great  
Swell to Choir  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  
Choir to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Compostion pedals: Swell(2), Great(2)  
Lever swell pedal to Swell and Choir  

 


The Organ at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Newcastle (according to the late R. Cherry’s collection.)

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Dulcet 4′
Voix Celeste 8′
Salicional 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Tremulant  
   

 

GREAT ORGAN
Mixture III rks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 3′
Wald flute 4′
Principal 4′
Gamba 8′
Hohl flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Clarionet 8′
Suave flute 4′
Gemshorn 4′
Dulciana 8′
Lieblich Gedact 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Principal 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to great  
Swell to choir  
Swell to pedal  
Great to pedal  
Choir to pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell (2), Great (2)  
lever swell pedals to swell and choir  
Compass: manuals CC-G 56n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Tracker action  
Straight and concave pedals  

Some other Hill organs known to the present writer.

4. Town Hall, Sydney 1886-9.Opened 1890 by the late W. T. Best. Cost: £16,300. Set in an elliptical cove approx. 68′ long and 26′ wide. There are 8,672 pipes altogether. Five manuals, 127 speaking stops and 14 couplers. Compass:manuals CC-C (61 n.):Pedals CCC-F (30 n.) Pitch altered from C535 to C522 in 1939, being done by Mr. S.T. Noad and costing just under £1,000.

5. Presbyterian Church, Rose Bay2 manuals and pedal

6. St. Barnabas’ Church of England, Broadway 2 manual and pedal.

7. St. John’s Church of England, Ashfield 2 manual and pedal (electric action by Handel and Wiltshire).

8. St. Andrew’s Cathedral, George St., Sydney. Built in 1886. 3 manuals, 34 speaking stops, 7 couplers, this instrument, which stands in the northern transept, was replaced in the late 1920’s by a Whitely organ erected opposite in the southern transept. When, towards the end of its life, the Whitely organ broke down, the disused hill with rat-eaten bellows, pneumatics, etc., would be called into service. Both the Whitely and Hill instruments are incorporated in the present re-build by Hill, Norman & Beard (Aust.).

9. Hunter-Baillie Memorial Church, Annandale. A 3 manual, tracker-actioned organ with 25 speaking stops and 5 couplers. The diapason and flute tone are of excellent quality while the organ case mentioned earlier is of great beauty. There is a 16′ reed stop on the great, labeled “Bombarde”, which was added later under the direction of the then city organist, Auguste Wiegand.

The great organ has a comprehensive tonal scheme, the fifteenth, mixture and reeds adding a “fire” and brilliance which, although smaller in scale, is similar in effect to the Town Hall organ. The swell organ is similar to the specification at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Newcastle, while there is a bourdon and open wood stock on the pedals.

10. St. John’s Church of England, Darlinghurst. This organ, built in 1886, was originally a 3 manual Hill organ of 32 speaking stops and 6 couplers. It has since been rebuilt.

11. Bourke Street Methodist Church. This very beautiful 2 manual organ is thought to be an early Hill. The 8′ and 2′ flutes on the swell possess a similar character to the 2′ stop at the Newtown Methodist Church. This church, no longer used for services, is now and A.B.C. studio.

12. Pitt Street Congregational Church. The present 3 manual organ is a later Hill organ, being installed in 1911.

BRITISH ORGAN BUILDERS 4

Some Organs by A. Hunter and Sons of London.

The Organ at St. Peter’s Anglican Cathedral, Armidale.

This organ was built in 1896.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Horn 8′
Mixture III rks
Gemshorn 4′
   
Voix celeste 8′
Gamba 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Violin diapason 8′
Lieblich double (?bourdon) 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Clarinet 8′
Fifteenth 2′
Flute 4′
Principal 4′
Dulciana 8′
Gamba 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason(small) 8′
Open diapason(large) 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Open diapason 16′
Bourdon 16′
violincello 8′
Flute bass 8′

 

COUPLERS
Swell octave  
Swell suboctave  
Swell octave to great  
Swell to pedal  
Great to pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Composition pedals: Swell (3), Great (3)(with suitable pedal  
1 piston -great to pedal reversible  
Compass: manuals CC-G 56n.  
Tracker action  
Direct coupled rotary blower  

 


St. Andrew’s Church of England, Summer Hill 1897. 3 Manuals, 33 speaking stops, 7 couplers.


Methodist Church, Burwood 1893. 3 manuals, 29 speaking stops, 7 couplers.


 

Congregational Church, Homebush.1897. 3 manuals, 21 speaking stops, 8 couplers.


5. All Saints’ Church, Petersham. 1886. 2 manuals , 17 speaking stops, 4 couplers.


6. St. James’ Presbyterian Church, Burwood. 1897. 2 manual, 18 speaking stops, 4 couplers.


7. Methodist Church, Waverley. 1888. 3 manuals, 24 speaking stops, 7 couplers.

The late Mr. Cherry listed the organ of Holy Trinity church of England, Dulwich Hill, as a 2 manual organ with pedals, pneumatic action, rebuilt by Hunter of Sydney. According to Mr. W. Pogson, there was a Mr. Hunter not connected with the London builders who was a voicer, tuner and player of the organ.


BRITISH ORGAN BUILDERS 5

Some Organs by Joseph W. Walker and Sons of London.

This firm was originated by George England in 1740, who was succeeded by his son and his son-in-law, H. Nicholls, to whom J. W. Walker was apprenticed. Walker took over the business in 1820 after Nicholl’s death. He died in 1870 and the factory was carried on by his son, James John (1846-1922). The firm is still in business today.

The Organ at St. Thomas’ Church of England, Port Macquarie.

(according to the late Mr. Cherry’s collection.) This instrument was originally a barrel organ and 2 barrels are still retained. The pedal board is permanently coupled and there is no bottom octave to the open diapason. .

SPECIFICATION
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Stop. diap. treble 8′
Stop. diap. bass 8′
   
Open diapason 8′

 

ACCESSORIES
Two Composition pedals  
Compass: manuals CC-G 58n.  

 


The organ at St. Thomas’ Church of England, Mulgoa.This is a 1 manual instrument of 4 stops, built by Walker in 1863. The compass is from CC—G (56 notes). The organ has 4 stops and is hand blown.

SPECIFICATION
Open diapason 8′
Stop. diap.bass (CC-A 9 notes) 8′
Stop. diap. treble(Rem. compass)/td> 8′
   
Flute 4′

 


The Organ at St. John’s Cathedral, Parramatta 1863. This organ is situated in the northern transept, and there is plenty of space around the instrument.

SWELL ORGAN
Vox humana 8′
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Swell Mixture 12 & 15
Swell Principal 4′
Swell stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Swell Double diapason 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Trumpet 8′
Mixture 3 & 4 ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 2/3′
Principal 4′
Flute 8′
Keraulophon 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Open bass 16′
Pedal Bourdon 16′
Pedal Principal 8′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Great to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
4 composition pedals to great  
Pedal Board flat and straight  
Compass Manuals: CC-G (56 n.)  
Compass Pedals: CCC-D (27 n.)  

Although the swell organ has key slips to CC, the pipes only go to tenor C. The lower octave will give the great stop diapason if that key is drawn out. The keraulophon is a mild string stop. Bonavia Hunt (in “The Modern British Organ” p.56) describes it as “a favourite Victorian quasi-string stop invented by gray and Davidson. The peculiarity consisted in a small circular hole made in the top portion of the cylindrical pipe where the slot is usually cut, the bottom end of the hole being continued down the pipe by means of a very narrow vertical slot which was later covered by a tuning slide. The name “keraulophon” means “horn-flute tone” and is a most inapt description of the hybrid string quality actually produced”. The stop is not made today, having gone out of fashion. The swell mixture has no breaks, while there are 3 breaks on the great mixture.

The Organ at St. John’s Church of England, Cook’s Hill, Newcastle.

SWELL ORGAN
Cornopean 8′
Principal 4′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Mixture III ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Clarabella 4′
Stopped diapason 8′
Horn diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Bourdon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great 16′
Great to Pedal 16′

 

ACCESSORIES
2 composition to Great  
Compass: Manuals CC-G 56 n.)  

 

This instrument was built in 1866. There is no string stop in this specification. The two diapasons have evidently received the same treatment in voicing as the later organ at St. Stephen’s, Newtown.

The Organ at St. John’s Church of England, Tamworth (according to the late R. Cherry’s collection.)

This was originally a Walker organ. Pneumatic action was installed by Waterhouse (?Whitehouse) Bros., Brisbane.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Gemshorn 4′
Keraulophon 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Celeste Tremulant

 

GREAT ORGAN
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Wald flute treble  
stopped diapason bass  
Dulciana 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

COUPLERS
Swell superoctave  
Swell suboctave  
Swell to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

The 4′ stop labeled “gemshorn” is unusual, as will be noticed from the other Walker specifications. In a rough attempt to date the organ, the keraulophon suggests the earlier Walker, while the presence of the wald flute suggests the later Walker. There is no diapason on the swell organ. The super and sub swell couplers would almost certainly be a later addition. A photograph which accompanies the specification is of the old organ (only 15 stops, which is right if the swell super and sub couplers are deducted). The pedal compass is seen to be CC-F (30n) while the manuals give the appearance of CC-G (56 n.) The photograph also shows 4 composition pedals (as at present), and a lever swell pedal at the usual right hand side. There is a draw-stop under the left jamb, possibly swell tremulant.


The organ at St. Philip’s Church of England, Church Hill.This instrument, built in 1873, is very similar in style, tone and case to the organ at St. Stephen’s, Newtown. It possesses more string stops and is a slightly larger specification. There are angels blowing trumpets mounted on the case.

SWELL ORGAN
Clarion 4′
Cornopean 8′
Oboe 8′
Mixture III ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Voix Celeste 8′
Salicional 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′
Tremulant  

 

GREAT ORGAN
Clarionet 8′
Trumpet 8′
Mixture IV & V ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 2/3′
Principal 4′
Flute harmonique 4′
Dulciana 8′
Voix Celeste 8′
Gamba 8′
Stopped bass, wald flute treble 8′
Open diapason 8′
Double diapason 16′
Tremulant  

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Open diapason 16′
Bourdon (by rocking tab on jamb) 16′
Violoncello 8′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Lever swell pedal  
Compass Manuals: CC-G (56 n.)  
Compass Pedals: CCC-F (30 n.)  

 

The Organ at St. Stephen’s Church of England, Newtown

This instrument was built in 1874 and is installed in the southern transept of the church, a large, lofty stone building designed by Blacket, and costing £12,000. The organ is spaciously laid out, the pipes having ample room to speak. The organ sounds very fine in the church. According to the present rector, Mr. Steele, the organ was ordered by the church authorities and came direct to the church from the works. It was to be placed in the west gallery, but on arrival, being found too big, was erected in its present position. Fine as the organ sounds now, it would have sounded even more impressive in the gallery with the obvious advantages of direct speech into the nave of the church and of height, enabling the tone to carry down the church without roof, floor or other building obstructions. Like the organ at St. Philip’s Church Hill, there are 4 trumpet-blowing angels mounted on the case posts.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Cornopean 8′
Mixture II ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Stop’d diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Mixture III ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Principal 4′
Harmonique Flute 4′
Stop’d bass, wald flute treble 8′
Dulciana 8′
Hornn diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Bourdon 16′
Open diapason 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
3 composition pedals to Great  
2 composition pedals to Swell  
Compass Manuals: CC-G (56 n.)  
Compass Pedals: CCC-F (30 n.)  
   
Lever swell pedal  
Tracker action.  

This organ contains good solid pipe work, with some very fine voicing. The voicing of the two great diapasons and the distinctive character of the wald flute are features of this organ. The specification is interesting; although only of 19 speaking stops, there is a complete diapason chorus on each manual. There are no string stops on the swell organ while the pedal department shows the lack of upper work so characteristic of this period.

Swell Organ. The chorus reed is a cornopean, a stop invented by William Hill. Noel Bonavia-Hunt observes (“M.B.O.” p. 73) that if this stop was intended by the builders of this period to approximate trumpet tone, then the term is a misnomer, as the cornopean is properly a horn, a rank which belongs to the small reed category as opposed to the close-tone trumpet family. The oboe is typical of its class. The swell shutters are divided into two sections, every stop in the box being easily accessible by a door between the divided shutters.

Sw. mixture ranks: CC 15 19, cc 12 15.

Great Organ. Scalings: open diapason 7 ¼” (approx.), horn diapason 6 ½”, principal 3-3/16″, fifteenth 1 ½”, mixture 1 5/8″, 1 ¼” and 7/8″ – CC 15 19 22, mid. C 12 15 19.

These two 8′ diapasons give ample foundation tone to this department than the big open. Both are lovely stops completely satisfying the player. Both go well together. The dulciana consists of wooden pipes below A sharp in the lowest octave. The wald flute is a most unique stop in Walker’s hands. The writer will never forget the thrill of hearing the St. Philip’s flute for the first time as a young organ student, and can fully appreciate Bonavia-Hunt’s enthusiasm (“M.B.O.” p. 62). The stop has an inverted mouth. According to Bonavia-Hunt, the quality lies to a great extent in the secret of the manner of the notching done inside the cap. With a wide experience, he does not know of any other builder who could exactly reproduce this tone. The pipe is rectangular in shape, with the mouth on the narrow plank. The first open pipe is at middle C. The harmonic flute is a metal stop, twice the length required for an open pipe, and pierced approximately half way up. This example is pierced on four sides, not quite half way up. This, according to Bonavia-Hunt, is the usual spot. It gives the major seventh as the hum note (the anticipatory note preceding the mature note).

Pedal organ. Scalings: Bourdon 7 ½” x 8″, open diapason 8″ x 11 ½”.

Both are fine stops. The open diapason has a 7-8/10″ x 3 5/8″ mouth, which has been reduced to 2 ¾”. The bourdon mouth is 6-6/10″ x 3″ at center, 2 ¼” at sides.


There is a Walker organ at St. David’s Church of England, Surry Hills.

AUSTRALIAN ORGAN BUILDERS 1

An Early Local Organ Builder

In “The Canon” for May, 1953 (Page 430) the following extract from “The Australian”, Saturday, October 18, 1845 is published. “Organ Building – We were much gratified yesterday by an inspection of a beautiful chamber finger – organ which has just been completed by Mr. W. J. Johnson for Mr. Aldis, the tobacco merchant. Its compass is from CC to F in alt. And it has four stops, viz. diapason treble, diapason bass, principal and dulciana, and is furnished with a Venetian swell. The case is made of cedar, with handsomely ornamented gilt pipe front-altogether forming an elegant construction, highly credible to the builder. We understand this is the third instrument built by Mr. Johnson in the colony; the first was for the temporary Cathedral Choral, George St.; the second for St. Matthew’s Windsor; and two more of larger dimensions are in progress, viz. one for the Independent Chapel, Pitt-street, and one for the Church Society. As Mr. Johnson can build these instruments in the colony at a much cheaper rate than they can be imported, we hope soon to see them more generally introduced into our several churches and chapels; and as every possible encouragement should be given to our infant colonial manufacturers, we should suggest that in future subscriptions for instruments, and in public worship, express stipulation should be made that the money should be expended in the colony”

SOME ORGANS BY W. DAVIDSON, SOMETIME OF NORTH SYDNEY

The Organ at St. Thomas’ Church of England, North Sydney

This church situated in Maclaren St., was designed by Blacket and is of cathedral proportions. The organ is situated in a chamber at the south-east end of the church. The instrument is cramped in layout while the only egress for sound is by two arches, one opening into the chancel and the other, filled by pedal violone pipes opening into the southern transept. In addition, the organ tone has to carry across a lofty transept before reaching the nave. The result is a considerable diminition of volume. The tone of the organ is very good, all the fluework is mellow, the great diapason chorus both cohesive and brilliant while the open wood and quint stops on the pedal are very thrilling when heard in the nave.

The history of the organ is not easy to trace. The present church was built around and over a smaller stone church during the 1870’s. When completed, the smaller building was demolished and taken out through the west door of the new building. According to Mr. Roger Vine-Hall, a warden of the church, there was a 2-manual organ in the old church. A search through the records failed to show any mention of this organ before 1881. It is generally believed that the choir organ of the present organ served as the great organ originally.

The following information which was obtained from the records sheds some light on progress from 1881 onwards.

  • 1881 – “Account paid to Mr. Jackson-new valves to bellows, lining and repairing organ”
  • 1882 -“Out of Old English Fair, the sum of £100 to be expended in repairing and improving the present organ.”
  • 1883 – “Additions to stage for organ” 26/1/1886 – Plans to add to the organ at a cost of £300. 12/10/1894 — ‘ Mr. Davidson to carry out further work in connection with completion of organ and putting it in playable condition.
  • 1895 – 6-£42-2-4 to organ fund.
  • 1897-£100 from organ fund to Mr. Davidson
  • 1895-According to Mr. Vine-Hall, Mr. Joseph Massey, the organist at this time, re-opened the 3 manual organ with a recital given in the presence of the Governor, Sir Robert Duff.
  • 25/9/1900 Dissatisfaction by the church council with the progress of Mr. Davidson’s work. “the pipes are only prepared for”
  • 8/10/1900 ”   ”   ”   “
  • 5/4/1900 ”   ”   ”   “
  • 1901 – £35 to organ fund from Colonel MacDonald bequest of £300 to church.
  • 1903 – £44 for completing of organ
  • 1904 – £20 ”   ”   ”   “
  • Wardens’ Report-Easter, 1904 – “The organ, upon which Mr. W. Davidson has been engaged (as funds permitted) during the past 22 years is now virtually completed with the exception of the chancel front.” The report goes on to state the hope that someone will erect the Transept front as memorial. It could be expected to cost between £100 and £150. (This front was given later by Mr. John St. Vincent Welsh in memory of his mother) A gas engine to work the bellows was also needed as under the arrangement then existing, three people were required to work the bellows.
  • 1906 – Vox humana stop added.
  • 28/1/1909 – “G. Fincham to supply vertical generators for the organ at £65.” (matter stood over and some talk of giving the contract to Norman and Beard)
  • 1911 – Planning the gas motor
  • April, 1916 – Planning electric light and power

The organ is a three manual instrument of 43 speaking stops. The action is tracker to the manuals, also to the pedal open wood and pedal couplers, while the rest of this department is tubular pneumatic. This accounts for the borrowing (considerable for this period) from the 16′ pedal bourdon rank. The great pipe work is of less weightier metal than the choir pipes. The diapason rank and tonal volume of the unenclosed choir is a feature of this organ. The swell. The swell and great stops and great stops are both on the right-hand jamb, a misleading arrangement for the unprepared organists.

SWELL ORGAN
Horn 8′
Oboe 8′
Mixture III ranks
Principal 4′
Wald Flute 4′
Vox Celeste 8′
Dulciana 8′
Gamba 8′
Hohl Flute 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Clarion 4′
Trumpet 8′
Mixture III-V ranks
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 2/3′
Principal 4′
Harmonic Flute 4′
Stop diapason 8′
Open Diapason No.2 8′
Open diapason No.1 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Vox humana 8′
Clarionet 8′
Piccolo 2′
Gemshorn 4′
Lieblich Flute 4′
Salicional 8′
Gamba 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Open diapason 8′
Tremulant  

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Sub-bourdon(no bottom octave) 32′
Open bass 16′
Violone 16′
Bourdon 16′
Swell bourdon 16′
Quint 10 2/3′
Violoncello 8′
Flute 8′
Flute 4′

 

ACCESSORIES
2 Composition pedals to Choir  
3 Composition pedals to Swell  
4 Composition pedals to Great  
Compass: manuals CC-G 56n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Swell to Choir  
Swell octave  
Choir to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  
Choir to Pedal  
Balance swell pedal to swell organ.  
Lever swell pedal to choir clarionet in its own box.  
traight concave pedalboard – draw-stops inclined to manuals  

 

Swell Organ: The bourdon is a stop wood flute throughout. The hohl flute which is of wood, is a complete rank. The gamba takes the hohl flute bass for its lowest octave, while the wald flute, dulciana and vox celeste have no bottom ocatave. The fifteenth is rather shrill. The three rank mixture ha the following breaks: CC 19 22 26, middle C 15 19 22. The oboe and horn are typical of their class, being uneven in speech due to age.

Great Organ: Scalings: Bourdon 6″ x 4 ½”, diapason No. 1 6″, diapason No. 2 5″, principal 3 ¼”, twelfth 2″, fifteenth 1 ¾. Mixture ranks CC 17 19 22, C sharp 15 17 19, mid C sharp 15 19 22, little C 8 12 15 through.

The bourdon is a misnomer, being a double open diapason from tenor F sharp upwards. The upper harmonics of the small open diapason are slightly more developed than those of the large one. The principal is well scaled ot the 8′ diapasons. The fifteenth and twelfth add the necessary brilliance, while the 3/5 rank mixture caps what is one of the finest diapason choruses in Sydney. The harmonic flute is the usual pierced metal stop of average tone, and lacking the lowest octave. The stopped diapason is also only of average tone quality.

The great reeds like those of the swell, are now very uneven in speech, while their tone also has deteriorated with age.

Choir Organ: The salicional is a mild string stop without a bottom octave. The gamba goes to low F sharp and then takes the lieblich gedact bass. This stop is of very poor tonal quality, and slow of speech. The open diapason is one of the finest to be heard in Sydney. It is unfortunate that such a beautiful stop lacks its lowest octave. The gemshorn is a perfect counterpart to the diapason in tone quality. The lieblich flute is a fair specimen of its class. The piccolo is well known, but a little too shrill. The vox humana is disconnected, while the clarionet is of poor quality. Scalings: diapason (tenor C) 2 5/8″ (mouth 2-1/10″ x 5/8″), gemshorn CC-2 ½” tapering to 7/16″ (mouth 2-3/16″ x 5/8″), piccolo CC-1-9/16″ (mouth 2-5/16″ x 11/16″) arched upper lip. Pedal Organ: Scalings: open wood 10″ x 12″, bourdon 6 ½” x 8 3/8″ violone 5 ½”. The open wood is a very telling stop in church. It is situated against the back wall. The 32′, 16′, 8′, 4′ and 10 2/3′ flute rank are all off the rank of bourdon pipes. This is a somewhat economical way of overcoming the inadequacy of the usual Victorian pedal organ. The quint is greatly helped by the “muffled” impression this organ gives, almost creating the impression of a real 32′ stop. The violone 16′ with the violoncello is a very poor rank of metal pipes, not bearded, and very slow of speech. The swell bourdon, while a useful borrowing, does not speak on all its notes.

Mention should be made of an architect’s design dated 1884 in the records box. In this scheme,a remarkably good one, it was intended to place the organ right across the wall of the southern transept. The present south wall was to be extended further out at its base, with a lower floor level than the church, while the organ was to be placed in two chambers, one behind the two outside fronts of the three making up the organ case.Providing the sound had easy egress, which is just a little doubtful from the plans, the situation would have been a splendid one.

The Organ at North Sydney Congregational Church

This church, built in 1884, possesses a 2-manual tracker action organ. There is no record of the erection of the organ, but the present minister, Rev. W.G. Sands, understands that it was installed between 1910 and 1920, and is one of the last organs that Davidson built. According to an old member of this church, Davidson had a workshop half-way down Kurraba Road, North Sydney, which can still be seen to-day.

SWELL ORGAN
Vox humana 8′
Principal 4
Viol d’orchestre 8′
   
Lieblich gedacht 8′
tremulant  

 

GREAT ORGAN
Harmonic Flute 8′
Dulciana 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Sub- bass 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to great  
Great to pedal  

 

ACCESSORIES
Compass: manuals CC-F (54n.), pedals CCC-G (25n.)  
Two composition pedals, one to each manual.  
Lever swell pedal  
Great to pedal horseshoe  

 

The organ is situated on the floor at the western end of the church. The building is quite good acoustically. The open diapason is metal to the lowest F sharp, these lowest metal pipes constituting the front, while the remainder of the stop is of wood. The stopped diapson is the usual wood specimen. The dulciana which only goes to tenor C, is of metal, while the stopped diapason serves as a bass for this rank.

The vox humana was added in the 1930’s, and is of very poor quality. The viol d’orchestra takes the lieblich gedacht bass below bottom A. The scale of the pedal bourdon is 5 5/8″ and 7″. The tone of the instrument, though not understanding, is very pleasing throughout

The organ at St. Augustine’s Church of England, Merewether.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Principal 4′
Salicional 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Violin diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Harmonic flute 4′
Open diapason 8′
Viola 8′
Hohl FLute 8′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Clarinet 8′
Lieblich FLute 4′
Wald Flute 8′
Dulciana 8′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Flute 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to pedal  
Great to pedal  
Choir to pedal/td>  
Swell to great  
Choir to great  
Swell to choir  
Swell superoctave to great  
Swell suboctave to great  

 

ACCESSORIES
3 compositions to Great  
2 compositions to Swell  
Lever swell pedal  
Tracker action throughout  
Drawstops at right angles to manual  
Compass: Manuals CC-C 61 n.)  

 

AUSTRALIAN ORGAN BUILDERS 2

Some Organs by W. Davidson (continued)

The Organ at St. James’ Church, King Street, Sydney

SWELL ORGAN
Clarion 4′
Horn 8′
Oboe 8′
Mixture  
Principal 4′
Flute 4′
Voix Celeste 8′
Gamba 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

GREAT ORGAN
Trumpet 8′
Mixture  
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 2 2/3′
Principal 4′
Harmonic Flute 4′
Gamba 8′
Stopped diapason 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

CHOIR ORGAN
Clarinet 8′
Piccolo 2′
Suabe Flute 4′
Dulciana 8′
Salicional 8′
Viole di gamba 8′
Lieblich gedact 8′
Clarabella 8′
Tremulant  

 

PEDAL ORGAN
Open wood 16′
Violone 16′
Bourdon 16′
Quinte 10 2/3′
Principal 8′
Bass Flute 8′

 

ACCESSORIES
3 Composition pedals to Choir  
5 Composition pedals to Swell  
5 Composition pedals to Great  
Compass: manuals CC-A 58n.  
Compass: pedals CCC-F 30n.  
Balanced swell pedals to choir and swell.  

 

COUPLERS
Swell to Great  
Swell suboctave(acting through to Great)  
Swell superoctave (acting through to Great)  
Swell to Choir  
Choir to Great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  
Choir to Pedal  
Pedal poppets: Swell to Pedal, Great to Pedal, Pedal Bourdon 16′ and Pedal Flute 8′  
Tubular pneumatic action throughout; swell boxes pneumatically operated. Concave and convex pedal board.  

 

The Organ at St. Paul’s Church of England, Burwood

The late Mr. Cherry’s scrapbook has an unidentified cutting describing this instrument as follows:
“The organ is a 3-manual instrument of 35 stops, swell and choir enclosed, and was built by W. Davidson in 1890. Later a new pedal board, conforming to the measurements issued by the Royal College of Organists, was installed by C. Richardson & Company. In 1927 Mr. S. T. Noad, who now maintains the organ, installed an electric blower, and in 1930 thoroughly cleansed the instrument and re-palleted the sound boards. The organ is noted for its mellow tone and suitability for the reverent performance of church music. It is a fitting instrument for a beautiful church”.

The organ at St. Paul’s Church of England, Cobbity.

There is a small 1-manual organ by Davidson at this church. Though only of a few stops, there is a twelfth and fifteenth in the specification.

Some organs by C.J. Jackson, a local builder.

Mr. Jackson did some work on the organ at St. Thomas’ Church, North Sydney, in 1881. It is quite possible that he maintained the organ. He installed the Bevington organ at All Saints’ Church of England, Hunter’s Hill, some time after 1888, his business being at Petersham at this period.

The organ at the Church of St. Stephen the Martyr, Penrith.

A letter from Mr. E. W. Orth, an old resident of Penrith and some time organist of the church, contains the following information:

“The organ was built in 1872. The instrument was built by a Mr. Jackson, at that time a noted organ builder…. …. About 1936, a second manual was installed, which greatly improved the organ. I understand it was originally installed in a church in Sussex Street, Sydney, up in the Rocks area, but the land was resumed by the Government and the church closed.

SWELL ORGAN
Oboe 8′
Octave 4′
Gedact 8′
Gamba 8′
Tremulant  

 

GREAT ORGAN
Fifteenth 2′
Twelfth 3′
Principal 4′
Flute 4′
Stop’d diapason 8′
Dulciana 8′
Open diapason 8′
Bourdon 16′

 

PEDAL ORGAN
bourdon (from Great) 16′
Violon 16′

 

COUPLERS
Swell to great  
Swell to Pedal  
Great to Pedal  

 

Description: The great dulciana is a metal stop. It does not possess a bottom octave. The principal is metal below F sharp, with wooden pipes to complete the rank. The 4′ flute is a harmonic stop. The pedal violon is of wood, and possess the true “burr” of a good wooden pipe of this class. The great organ possesses clarity and brilliance, and does not overwhelm the listener, though sounding adequate.

The Organ at St. Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Sydney

There is an old 2-manual organ at present out of use in the cathedral, which was built by Jackson. The cathedral authorities have been intending to put this instrument back in commission with new electric action, according to Mr. Ken Noad.

An old organ at St. Mark’s Church of England, Darling Point.

According to Mr. W.H. Monk, organist of St. Philip’s Church Hill, there was an organ built by Jackson at St. Mark’s, about 50 years ago.


Some organs by later Australian builders.

C. Richardson.

A Sydney builder and maintenance man, who built many organs, and succeeded Jackson. Two of his men were C. W. Leggo and S.T. Noad. Richardson left the organ building world some time during the 1920’s. Some of his organs are to be found in the following churches:

  • Methodist Church, Crow’s Nest:  2-manual organ, 9 speaking stops, 3 couplers.
  • St. Saviour’s Church of England, Redfern:   A very fine 3-manual organ, pneumatic action, situated in a very resonant building (semi-circular roof).
  • Church of England, Dubbo:  A 2-manual organ of 9 speaking stops.
  • 4. St. Michael’s Church of England, Vaucluse: A 2-manual organ of 9 speaking stops.
  • Congregational Church, Brown Street, Newcastle:  A 2-manual organ of 9 speaking stops (on the manuals, no pedal stops listed). Pneumatic action.
  • Presbyterian Church, Mosman.   A 2-manual organ.

(Nos. 1, 3, 4 & 5 from the late R. Cherry’s collection).

Three organs by C.W. Leggo.

  • St. Hilda’s Church of England, Katoomba.  A 2-manual organ of 14 speaking stops.
  • Chapel of the Convent of the Sisters of Joseph, Lochinvar.   A 2-manual organ of 12 speaking stops, tubular pneumatic action. Erected in 1933.
  • Methodist Church, Haberfield.  An organ by Mr. Leggo, was installed in 1930.

Some organs by T.C. Edwards.

Christ Church Anglican Cathedral, Newcastle.  A 2-manual organ of 30 speaking stops and 6 couplers, with pneumatic action, and gas blown. Was installed in 1905 by Norman & Beard. (A Dictionary of Organs of Organists, London, 1921).

An introductory note to the souvenir issued at the reopening of the present instrument reads as follows: “The organ… has recently been considerably added to, and very largely rebuilt: the alterations and the new section of the organ… consist of the following:

  • 1. A new organ front, facing the chapel of St. Nicholas.
  • 2. New solo and choir organs
  • 3. The addition of a fourth manual
  • 4. The removal of the console to a place on the chancel floor.

Much delay has been met with in carrying out this work. The original contract with Messrs Holroyd & Edwards had to be cancelled owing to the failure of the constructing firm to carry out the work. The work, at a very unfinished stage, was taken over by Mr. T.C. Edwards, who has entirely completed the work. ….The pipes were all imported from Palmer’s in England…. the cost of the completed work as been in the vicinity of £1,500.”

The re-opening took place on Sunday, 15th July, 1923. The enlarged 4-manual instrument contains 38 speaking stops and 10 couplers. The action is on the exhaust tubular pneumatic principle.

……..

In addition to the foregoing list of local builders, there are also to be found in New South Wales not a few organs by interstate builders of this century. The most important names are Whitehouse of Brisbane, Fincham of Melbourne, Roberts of Adelaide, and Dodd, also of Adelaide.